Joanna Leszczyńska

PORTFOLIO - Joanna Leszczyńska


Why can screen printing be a serigraphy and serigraphy can be a screen print?

All of it began at the beginning of the 20th century when the term silk screen printing functioned mainly in printing and was associated with both commercial print and the method creating a template. The term serigraphy was introduced to designate works artistic, which were created with the use of directly prepared matrices by the artist. These matrices were mainly different in the way of applying the image (which in the case of serigraphy was hand-painted on a silk net), and the final effect of greater artistic value. The development of the method of preparing dies has also changed, and has blurred differences in terminology. Today, the terms silkscreen and serigraphy are used interchangeably. The work created by means this technique is evaluated mainly in relation to their artistic value and the based of the print run.

Maybe some history?

The Western world began to get interested in the screen printing only at the end of the 19th century.The first attempts to apply mass-scale printing were made in textile factories
in the United States, England and France. The serigraphy technique in a similar form as known today was patented in 1907 in Manchester by an Englishman, Samuel Simon as a silk-screen technique involving squeezing the paint through a fine mesh stretched over the frame using a squeegee ( a wooden or metal handle with a rubber attached as a rub). The template is made of the polyester mesh in most cases (once used to be made of chiffon, silk or cotton) stretched on a rectangular aluminum or wooden frame. The pattern is created by covering some parts of the sieve with varnish or other blocking emulsion (today most often photosensitive emulsion hardened under the influence of light).

There are two ways of applying one template to another template in a direct and indirect way. The first method involves drawing directly on the sieve. The drawing is used inpreparations containing fat in their composition. They can be used as ordinary soil oil pastels, graphic inks or even simple bar soap. In the next step the drawing created in this way is coated with photosensitive emulsion then dried, irradiated to cure the emulsion, and finally elutes the drawing in the indirect method. The theme to be placed on the template (not on
sieve) is drawn in black ink on a foil or tracing paper. The finished drawing overlaps a net coated with a photosensitive emulsion and then irradiated. The area where the drawing is placed blocks the access of light to the emulsion and it does not remain cured. It becomes washable without any problems. In this way it arises a template through which the paint is squeezed during the printing process. Although the materials used in this technique have been changed over the years it significantly improved the printing method which remain unchanged. The Screen printing method was widespread during the World War I, especially in the United States, thanks to John Pilsworth from San Francisco, who introduced a multi-color printing method using one matrix screen printing. In the interwar period the screen printing was also spread into some other countries, getting to be applied in other in advertising graphics. A significant advance in the development of this technique was the invention of a shellec 13 profilm in 1929 by Luis F. D’Autremont of Ohio. Shortly thereafter, Joe Ulano invented a new type of cellulose film called the ulano-movie, which significantly accelerated the creation of templates.The further development in screen printing was related to the Second World War. The American Army applied the technique not only to set the printings on the information boards, weapons but some printings on propaganda leaflets as well. Initially the screen printing was used almost exclusively in commercial printing which had a significant impact on the perception of the technique by artists who treated it only as an industrial method of reproduction image for a very long time. Considering all the above the screen printing appeared at art exhibitions relatively late. not earlier then in 1930s.(continued)